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Avtorji

Sergej Bubnov, inž.

Vplivi potresa na stavbe v Skopju

UDK: 624.159.1:693/694(Skopje)

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THE EFFECT OF EARTHQUAKE ON BUILDINGS IN SKOPJE

THE EFFECT OF EARTHQUAKE ON BUILDINGS IN SKOPJE
Summary
According to the seismologists estimates, the earthquake in Skopje had the intensity of IX—X degree MCS. With a shallow hypocentrum and epicentrum in the centre of the town, the earthquake had a very damaging effect on close centre, meanwhile the suburbs were not so much destroyed.
It should be noted that the steel skeleton structures were found to be earthquake-proof, especially slender ones with the longer vibration period. Taking into account that those buildings were not designed to resist such an activity of the earthquake, they successfully resisted the horizontal forces. However, great desaster was caused by the destruction of blocks of flats, 4—5 stories high and made of bricks. These blocks couldn’t resist the horizontal forces because of the bad brick wall quality and construction unsuitability. Whenever the seismic wave stroke these buildings in the direction of a weak axis (transversal wall system — longitudinal direction, longitudinal wall system — transversal direction), it caused severe damages and destructions. In the old quarter of the town nearly all little houses made of unburned bricks, somewhere reinforced with old timber frames (timberhouses), were ruined. Smaller houses of new and more solid construction suffered
only more or less considerable damages, mehnwhile the light wooden structures proved to be earthquake resistant.
With a view to public buildings the halls with heavy bearing construction (concrete girders, brick arches), especially by high and slender columns supported ones, proved to be the least resistant.
The damages on civil engineering constructions, namely on bridges, were relatively small ones. Sewerage and water communication were repaired soon after the earthqueake. The analysis of the damaged buildings in Skopje results the following statements:
1. In seismic zones with high seismic grade, the bearing constructions with higher technical requirements shall be either constructions with steel skeleton or constructions with reinforced concrete skeleton.
2. Attention is to be given to structural details and to the quality of the material, as the mistakes in building while hidden during the vertical loading, may become highly nocuous during the earthquake.
3. In seismic zones, the requirements of the earthquake resistance shall be satisfied in design and construction.

Summary

According to the seismologists estimates, the earthquake in Skopje had the intensity of IX—X degree MCS. With a shallow hypocentrum and epicentrum in the centre of the town, the earthquake had a very damaging effect on close centre, meanwhile the suburbs were not so much destroyed.

It should be noted that the steel skeleton structures were found to be earthquake-proof, especially slender ones with the longer vibration period. Taking into account that those buildings were not designed to resist such an activity of the earthquake, they successfully resisted the horizontal forces. However, great desaster was caused by the destruction of blocks of flats, 4—5 stories high and made of bricks. These blocks couldn’t resist the horizontal forces because of the bad brick wall quality and construction unsuitability. Whenever the seismic wave stroke these buildings in the direction of a weak axis (transversal wall system — longitudinal direction, longitudinal wall system — transversal direction), it caused severe damages and destructions. In the old quarter of the town nearly all little houses made of unburned bricks, somewhere reinforced with old timber frames (timberhouses), were ruined. Smaller houses of new and more solid construction suffered

only more or less considerable damages, mehnwhile the light wooden structures proved to be earthquake resistant.

With a view to public buildings the halls with heavy bearing construction (concrete girders, brick arches), especially by high and slender columns supported ones, proved to be the least resistant.

The damages on civil engineering constructions, namely on bridges, were relatively small ones. Sewerage and water communication were repaired soon after the earthqueake. The analysis of the damaged buildings in Skopje results the following statements:

1. In seismic zones with high seismic grade, the bearing constructions with higher technical requirements shall be either constructions with steel skeleton or constructions with reinforced concrete skeleton.

2. Attention is to be given to structural details and to the quality of the material, as the mistakes in building while hidden during the vertical loading, may become highly nocuous during the earthquake.

3. In seismic zones, the requirements of the earthquake resistance shall be satisfied in design and construction.

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