Zveza društev gradbenih inženirjev in tehnikov slovenije
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Objavljeno v: Gradbeni vestnik - 3 - 1965

Avtorji

Franc Čačovič, dipl. inž.

O problematiki opečnih zgradb z ozirom na potrese

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On problems of brick masonry buildings with respect to earthquake

In general brick masonry buildings are not suitable for seismic regions. Despite of that we can not always avoid to build them. There is a little hope that buildings made of bricks would not be demaged by the earthquake of such an intensity as it struck the city Skopje. But if such earthquakes are infrequent it is economically justified to prevent the damage and to ensure the buildings by means of special measures against the collapse only. The use of reinforced columns in masonry buildings is one of such measures. As it has numerous disadvantages also, we have to strive to find out still other solutions of this problem. In Skopje there could have been seen, that the ground floors were damaged most badly and upper floors only moderately. As it is probable that the further earth-
quakes in Yugoslavia will have similar characteristics we can expect the buildings made of bricks to behave in the same manner. Therefore we can draw some conclusions from Skopje earthquake. Two of them are: brick masonry buildings should have the greater factor of safety against lateral load in upper stories than in the ground floor in order to localize the damage only to ground floor; and in the ground floor there should be undertaken special measures in order to prevent the appearance of the failure mechanism. It is the fact, that diagonal cracks do not necessarily lead to the collapse of brick masonry buildings. These diagonal cracks have even their good aspects, because they reduce the initial earthquake forces.

In general brick masonry buildings are not suitable for seismic regions. Despite of that we can not always avoid to build them. There is a little hope that buildings made of bricks would not be demaged by the earthquake of such an intensity as it struck the city Skopje. But if such earthquakes are infrequent it is economically justified to prevent the damage and to ensure the buildings by means of special measures against the collapse only. The use of reinforced columns in masonry buildings is one of such measures. As it has numerous disadvantages also, we have to strive to find out still other solutions of this problem. In Skopje there could have been seen, that the ground floors were damaged most badly and upper floors only moderately. As it is probable that the further earth-

quakes in Yugoslavia will have similar characteristics we can expect the buildings made of bricks to behave in the same manner. Therefore we can draw some conclusions from Skopje earthquake. Two of them are: brick masonry buildings should have the greater factor of safety against lateral load in upper stories than in the ground floor in order to localize the damage only to ground floor; and in the ground floor there should be undertaken special measures in order to prevent the appearance of the failure mechanism. It is the fact, that diagonal cracks do not necessarily lead to the collapse of brick masonry buildings. These diagonal cracks have even their good aspects, because they reduce the initial earthquake forces.

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