Zveza društev gradbenih inženirjev in tehnikov slovenije
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Objavljeno v: Gradbeni vestnik - junij 2012

Avtorji

Đorđe Obradović, univ. dipl. inž. grad.

HIŠE IZ ILOVICE

UDK: 504.03:624.012.8:691.41

Povzetek

Sodobna arhitektura in gradbeništvo sta skoraj popolnoma opustila ilovico kot gradivo, čeprav polovica svetovnega prebivalstva še vedno prebiva v hišah iz ilovice. Pri tem pa se pozablja, da je ilovica bila in ostala glavno gradivo v dolgi zgodo-vini človeštva. V mnogih državah so se arhitekti in gradbeni strokovnjaki ponovno začeli ukvarjati s hišami iz ilovice. V današnjem svetu ekonomske, ekološke in energijske krize to gradivo daje rešitve za veliko problemov pri gradnji malih, enodružinskih hiš. V dolgem časovnem obdobju je bilo v različnih okoljih razvitih več kot sto različnih metod gradnje. Kot primer sta prikazani banatski hiši starega tipa: hiša Centra za razširjanje načel o zemeljski arhitekturi v Mošorinu in hiša v Novi Crnji. Zaradi starosti in vremenskih vplivov sta zdaj obe v fazi obnavljanja. V svetu se pojavljajo gibanja z zahtevami po mirnem trajnostnem razvoju civilizacije. Prav tako so se vlade skoraj vseh držav v svetu opredelile za harmoničen razvoj, ki ne škoduje naravi – trajnostni razvoj. Te zahteve v veliki meri izpolnjujejo hiše iz ilovice. Velike prestižne javne in industrijske objekte in visoke stolpnice bomo tudi nadalje gradili iz sodobnih, bolj trdnih in bolj trajnih materialov. Metoda grajenja hiš iz ilovice ostaja primerna za najbolj razširjene stavbe: enodružinske hiše, hiše v vaškem okolju in podobno. Te so to, zgodovinsko gledano, tudi dokazale.

Ključne besede: hiše, trajnostna gradnja, ilovica

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CLAY HOUSES

Summary

Modern architecturе and civil engineering have almost completely abandoned clay as material for construction, even though a half of the world’s population still lives in houses made of clay. In doing so, the fact that clay was and still is the main construction material in the long history of mankind has been disregarded. The paper provides information about the history of building constructions made of clay and the current tendencies in architecture. In many countries, architects and civile engineers recommenced designing clay houses. In today’s world of economic, ecological and energy crisis, this material offers solutions for many problems in the construction of small, single-family houses. Over a long period, more than a hundred different methods of construction have been developed in different environments. The paper particularly covers the construction methods of clay houses in Vojvodina, Serbia. Two houses of the old Banat type are presented: a house of the Centre for the promotion of the principles of natural architecture in Mošorin, and a house in Nova Crnja. Both are now in the reconstruction phase. Globally, new movements are emerging supporting peaceful sustainable development of civilization. The governments of almost every country in the world are striving for harmonious development that does not harm nature. Clay houses fulfill these requirements to a large degree. Luxury and high-rise buildings will continue to be built using modern materials. The method of building houses of clay remains suitable for the most numerous buildings: single-family houses, village houses, and alike, for they have demonstrated their usefulness throughout the entire history of mankind.

Key words: houses, sustainable construction, clay.

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